These days the environment is grappled with the various destruction and degradation caused by the so called conscious human. Unquestionably, the earth is facing its most serious challenge, as a species in the web of life, man is rapidly destroying the foundation of his/her very existence. Though we are so much sophisticated by the luxuries we get from this materialistic world, yet we bound to return to the nature when calls. Nature is the place where we open our eyes, play our part, eat, spend our life times and where finally our body will be turned into ashes. we are living in this materialistic world neglecting the circumstances we have to bear where our so called developmental progress will involuntarily crush our eternal happiness. sometimes it make great humor when we listen that conventions and seminars for biodiversity conservation and environment protection are signing in the same country where nuclear weapons are frequently tested. In my point of view it doesn’t make a sense.
Upon this eye full of surrounding our survival depends, protect it and it will grow our happiness and surrounds us with beauty, abuse it the environment will degrade and collapse taking mankind with it. Furthermore no one is away from the degradation and the destruction and its consequences in the near future, and the youth are the most affected generations.
Forest harbor over half of the world terrestrial biodiversity .It sustain the livelihood of over billions of people worldwide and they provide the whole range of ecosystem services, including water filtration, soil stabilization and the raw ingredients for much of the world’ medicine.
Besides Nepal is small country yet enriched with different species of wild flora and fauna, it is the hub with various rare animals and plants . According to the recent data, Nepal has got 118 type of ecosystem besides ocean and desert,75 type of vegetation and 35 type of forest,43 species of amphibian,181 species of mammals,100 reptiles,635 species of butterfly,185 species of fresh water fish including different type of flora and fauna only residing in Nepal. According to BCN(Bird Conservation Nepal) among 832 species of birds are found in Nepal among them 31 species have been disappearing from the world.
As Nepal is the small country which is the victim of all the changes caused by the climate change, global warming, acid rain etc as a result of emission of GHG gases by the developed country. Forest pollution is the another factor responsible for the destruction of wild flora and fauna. It is the challenging task for the conservationist indeed. Toxic chemical from the industries and their disposal into the river, use of chemical pesticides and fertilizer in the agricultural field, air pollution, overpopulation, deforestation, encroachment are the sole cause for the deterioration of the natural environment. Forest pollution is theglobal issue requiring a global solution. These factor in fact are the determinants of the forest pollution at a glance. we are familier about the direct impact seen in the planet like ozone layer depletion, acid rain, unseasonal rainfall pattern ,temperature rise which has adversely affecting the the lives of human as well as animals and plants . Nepal is witnessing the rising demand of the forest products ultimately which led to encroachment causing deforestation and severe loss of the natural resources. Furthermore in the past, terai forest was deforested in the large extent for the eradication of malaria. To address the conservation, national parks and wildlife reserve have established which is no longer far from the impact of those changes.
Moreover national parks and wildlife reserve cover about 18% of the total forest area of Nepal. There are 10 national parks,3 wildlife reserve ,5 conservation areas and one hunting reserve established to address conservation even though the situation is very dire, wild animals ,birds ,reptiles ,fishes etc are decline in alarming rate. Due to urbanization, industrialization etc have threatened the live of animal, birds etc. They are no longer in their natural state. For example, due to habitat loss, lack of food, water pollution in the Narayani river, dolphin number are decreasing day by day, another concentrated pollution in the Narayani is killing large no of fish which in turn wiping out birdlife, reptiles, amphibian(esp gharial) and other fauna. Different studies have shown that water pollution in the river affect the endocrine system, decrease the fertility , and also in the breeding.
Glancing back to the childhood memories, we can see vulture in our surrounding feeding in the Caracus, even we are compelled to face the fear of the tiger and its destruction in the community areas. It’s pathetic to say, they are no longer in the areas due to the increased settlement, encroachment of the forest areas. We so called concern human are being mute in this sense.
A small effort can make a large difference, so the change should be started from the grass root level. As rural people are uneducated, they have unequal access to the opportunity, their voice is muted in the decision making. Community awareness can be the best solution along with the strong enforcement of rules and laws, clear demarcation of the forest boundary etc. In this context different agreements and goals have been set globally to reduce the GHG emission, deforestation, pollution etc to longer the life of the planet. Indeed many hands and natural forces have shaped the earth around us, being a youth who always love environments, wildlife and other components, it is our duty to raise key issues in relation to the climate change mitigation and adaptation. Global climate change related initiatives aimed at reducing pollution, deforestation and forest degradation, including role of conservation, sustainable management of forest.